One of the most popular landscape Pines in the Midwest and east due to its dense pyramidal shape, attractive needles and adaptability. At an older age, the contours become umbrella-shaped, and the bark becomes ribbed and furrowed. Flat furrows are covered with a mosaic of white, gray and brown colors. Shiny, dark green, almost black-green needles length from 3 to 5 inches (up to 6 inches), collected in bundles of two and extremely stiff and pointed.

The needles last for four (sometimes up to eight) years, giving the branches a full mane of green. Black pine adapts well to high pH, heavy clay soils. It is easily transplanted and quickly takes root. It is widely used for grouping and screening. In recent years, this species has been affected by Diplodia, which cause the death of shoots, and pine nematodes. Pine nematodes carried by beetles clog the vascular system of the plant and can kill whole or parts of the tree, often in one season. Assess the degree of disease of pine and nematodes on the site before planting. 

Habit: Austrian pine is densely pyramidal tree when young, becoming a large, broad, flat-topped tree with a tough, short trunk and low, stout, spreading branches.

Growth Rate: Medium to fast 18" to 24" per year in average mid west landscape.

Mature Sizes: In an average mid west landscape after 20 years 30' to 35' and 15' to 18' wide.

Needle: Dark green, 3" to 6" long, a horny point on end, sharp to the touch, grouped in pairs, persisting about 4 years.

Texture: Medium-course.

Cones: 2" to 3" long, and 1" to 1 1/4" wide before opening, tawny-yellow, becoming brown.

Culture: A hardy tree that withstands city conditions better than other pine, will withstand some dryness and exposure; resistant to heat and drought; less demanding in its soil requirements than most evergreen trees. Will succeed in fairly heavy clay and alkaline soils, tolerates salt spray from road traffic.

Disease and Insects: In recent years this pine has exhibited severe dieback in midwestern states; some of the dieback has been attributed to Diplodia tip blight; however, whole trees have died in a single season so probably multiple factors are involved; pine nematode transmitted by a beetle and in soil; plug up the vascular system and an entire plant may die in a single season.

Cultivars and Varieties:none recommended

Zone:4 to 7.

Native Habitat: Europe, from Austria to Central Italy. Introduced 1759.